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Comparing Torah and the Old Testament: Key Facts

Comparing Torah and the Old Testament: Key Facts

All over the world, you can witness people worshipping different entities and following different religions. All these religions have their scriptures. Torah and the Old Testament are two of these.

Christians refer to the Torah as the Pentateuch, the first of the five books of the Bible, which is made up of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. As for Jews, the Torah is a part of the Bible.

The Christian “Old Testament” is much more extensive than that and in Judaism, is called the “Tanakh or Hebrew Bible.” It contains all forty-six books of the Bible and the five considered as Torah by the Jews.

I’ll explain these scriptures and their differences in detail in this article.

What Is The Torah?

In the Jewish faith, the Torah is one part of the “bible.” It contains information about Jewish history. The law is also included. Moreover, the Torah teaches how to worship God and live a fulfilling life for the Jewish people.

Moses received the Torah from God as a religious law. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy are the Old Testament books containing the written Torah. In addition to an oral law, a great deal of Jews also recognize a written law, such as is found in the Talmud.

An image of a part of a scroll of Torah.
A scroll of Torah in Hebrew

What Is The Old Testament?

The Old Testament is a combination of five books of Moses along with other forty-one books.

At its core, the Old Testament is the story of God revealing Himself to the Jewish people to prepare them for the coming of the Messiah. Jesus Christ is known as the Messiah by Christians, as He is revealed in the New Testament.

The Old Testament is the first among the two parts of the Christian Bible. Books in the Christian Old Testament are also included in the Tanak, the Jewish Old Testament.

There is a slight difference between the order of the books in the Tanak and the Old Testament. However, the content within remains the same.  

Know The Difference: Torah VS Old Testament

Torah and the Old Testament are holy scriptures, especially for the Jews and Christians. There are several differences between both scriptures. I’ll explain them in the form of a table for easy understanding.

TorahOld Testament
The language in which Torah is written is Hebrew.The Old Testament is written in more than one language, including Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic.
Moses wrote its major part, while Joshua wrote the last part.Its first five books were written by Moses, while others were written by many authors, including Joshua, Jeremiah, Solomon, Daniel, etc.
Torah was written from around 450 BC to 1500 BC.The Old Testament was written and compiled almost a thousand years, starting from 450 BC.
In Torah, Jesus Christ is referred to as Christ.In Old Testament, Jesus Christ is referred to as Messiah.
Torah is the first book in the collection of five books by Moses.The Old Testament combines the Torah with the other four books and forty-one other scriptures.
Key distinctions between the Torah and Old Testament

Are the Old Testament And The Hebrew Bible The Same?

Most people around the world consider the Hebrew Bible and The Old Testament the same. These scriptures also go with the name Tanakh.

Moreover, the compilation of scriptures in both books is almost the same. The Old Testament is a translated version of the Hebrew Bible.

However, according to some folks, the meanings and perspectives of many things were altered during this translation process.

Here is a short video clip giving an insight into the basic explanation of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament.

Hebrew Bible and Old Testament Explanation

Torah VS The Old Testament: What Is The Difference Between Them?

For Jewish people, the Torah is a part of the “bible.” The Torah includes the history of the Jewish people and the laws followed by them. It also covers the teachings of Jewish people on how to live their lives and worship God. Further, the Torah covers five books written by Moses.

Secondly, the first two parts of the Christian Bible are the Old Testament. It includes 5 books written by Moses, along with 41 other books. In the Old Testament, God reveals himself and the coming of the Messiah to the Jewish people.

An image of an opened Bible with a cross placed on it.
The Old Testament is a compilation of different books

How Many Verses of The Torah Are There In The World?

There are a total of 5852 verses in the Torah, which are written by a scribe in Hebrew with a scroll.

In the presence of the congregation, once every three days, the portion of the Torah is read publicly. The original language of these verses is Tiberian Hebrew, with a total of 187 chapters.

Does The Old Testament Mention Jesus? 

Jesus Christ is not mentioned by name, but his presence is interpreted as the central figure of the Old Testament.

Does The Old Testament Include The Torah?

Yes, the Torah is part of the Old Testament along with the other four books of Moses, making it a set of five books.

Hebrew Bible Vs Old Testament: Are they the same?

The Hebrew Bible, which is also known as the Old Testament, Hebrew Scriptures, or Tanakh, writing collection was first preserved and compiled by the Jewish people as sacred books.

It also includes a vast portion of the Christian Bible, which is called the Old Testament.

What Is The Oldest Holy Book?

The oldest holy books or scriptures known to human civilization are the Kesh Temple Hymn of ancient summer.

These scriptures consist of clay tablets inscribed with the ancient text. According to scholars, these tablets date back to 2600 BCE.

Do Christians Believe In The Old Testament?

Most Christian clans believe in some part of the Old Testament that refers to moral laws.

These clans include Methodist churches, reformed churches, and the catholic church. Although they accept one part of the Old Testament that deals with moral law, they don’t consider its teachings regarding ceremonial law acceptable.

What Was The First Religion In The World?

According to data written down in history books, the world’s most ancient or first-ever religion is Hinduism.

Hinduism dates back almost 4000 years. It was founded around 1500 to 500 BCE. Besides Hinduism, some literature also refers to Judaism as one of the first religions on Earth.


Holy scriptures are of great sentimental importance to different communities worldwide. You can find thousands of these new and old scriptures scattered around the world.

  • Torah and the Old Testament are significant scriptures for Jews and Christians.
  • Torah, also called the Pentateuch, includes Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. It focuses on Jewish history and laws.
  • The Old Testament is more extensive, covering the Torah and additional books. It narrates God’s revelation for the Messiah’s arrival.
  • Key differences involve languages (Torah in Hebrew, Old Testament in Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic), authors (Moses for Torah, multiple for the Old Testament), and timelines of composition.
  • Torah refers to Jesus as Christ; the Old Testament calls him the Messiah.
  • The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are often seen as synonymous. They share content, but translations may alter meanings.
  • Torah has 5,852 verses, publicly read. The Old Testament indirectly features Jesus as a central figure.
  • The Old Testament includes 46 books, with the Torah as its foundation. It unveils God’s message and the Messiah’s coming.

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