Caimans, alligators, and crocodiles are among the largest living reptiles around the world. They are the three creatures that share many similarities. They have the same features, fierce and fearsome, they have a collective reputation for being some of the world’s most ferocious natural predators.
Since these three creatures are quite similar to each other, people often get confused between them and think of them as the same animal. But that’s not the case.
Despite belonging to the same reptile family, they are different from each other. Although they have many similarities, they are a few differences between them.
In this article, we’ll discuss caiman, alligators, and crocodiles and what are the differences between them.
Caiman is also spelled as Cayman. It belongs to the group of reptiles. They are related to alligators and are usually placed with them in the family Alligatoridae. Similar to other members of the order Crocodylia (or Crocodilia), Caimans are amphibious carnivores.
Caimans live along the edges of rivers and other bodies of water, and they reproduce by means of hard-shelled eggs laid in nests built and guarded by the female. They’re placed in three generations, that is:
- Caiman, including the broad-snouted (C. latirostris), spectacled (C. crocodilus), and yacaré (C. yacare) claimant.
- Melanosuchus, with the black caiman (M. niger).
- Paleosuchus, with two species (P. trigonous and P. palpebrosus) known as smooth-fronted caimans.
The largest and most dangerous of these species is the black caiman. The length of the black caiman is about 4.5 meters (15 feet). The other species generally attain lengths of about 1.2–2.1 meters, with a maximum of about 2.7 meters in the spectacled caiman.
The spectacled caiman is also one of the types of caiman, it’s the native of the tropics from southern Mexico to Brazil, and takes its name from a bony ridge in between the eyes that looks similar to the nosepiece of a pair of glasses.
It’s sufficient along mud-bottomed water. A large number of spectacled caimans were imported into the United States and sold to tourists after the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was placed under legal protection.
The smooth-faced caiman is the smallest among all the caimans. They are usually inhabitants of fast-flowing rocky streams and rivers in the Amazon region. They are great and strong swimmers and they feed on fishes, birds, insects, and other animals.
Similar to other crocodilians, alligators are large animals with powerful tails that are used both in defense and in swimming. Their ears, nostrils, and eyes are placed on top of their long head and project just above the water the reptiles float at the surface, as they often do.
Alligators are different from crocodiles because of their jaw and teeth. Alligators have a broad U-shaped snout and have an “overbite”; that is, all the teeth of the lower jaw fit within the teeth of the upper jaw. The fourth large tooth on each side of the alligator’s jawline fits into the upper jaw.
Alligators are considered carnivorous and they live along the edges of permanent bodies of water, such as lakes, swamps, and rivers. They dig burrows for their rest and avoid extreme weather.
The average life of an alligator is 50 years in the wild. However, there are some reports that show some specimens living beyond 70 years of age in captivity.
There are two types of alligators, American alligators, and Chinese alligators. American alligators are the largest among the two species and they are found in the southeastern United States.
American alligators are black with yellow banding when young and are generally brownish when adult. The maximum length of this alligator is about 5.8 meters (19 feet), but it more typically ranges from about 1.8 to 3.7 meters (6 to 12 feet).
The American alligators are commonly hunted and are sold in large numbers as pets. It disappeared from many areas due to hunting and was later given legal protection from hunters until it made an excellent comeback and limited hunting seasons were again established.
The Chinese alligator is another type of alligator, it’s much smaller compared to the American alligator, a little-known reptile found in the Yangtze River region of China. It’s smaller compared to the largest but attains a maximum length of about 2.1 meters (7 feet)—although usually growing to 1.5 meters—and is blackish with faint yellowish markings.
Crocodiles are large reptiles that are generally found in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Australia. They’re the members of Crocodilia, which also includes caimans, gharials, and alligators.
There are 13 different crocodile species and they are of different sizes. According to the Zoological Society of Londo, the smallest is the dwarf crocodile, it grows to about 1.7m in length and weighs around 13 to 15 pounds.
According to Oceana.org, the largest one is the saltwater crocodile, it can grow up to 6.5m and can weigh up to 2000 pounds.
Crocodiles are considered carnivores, which means they eat only meat. In the wild, they feed on fish, birds, frogs, and crustaceans. Occasionally, crocodiles cannibalize each other.
In captivity, they feed on small animals that have already been killed for them, such as rats, fish, or mice. According to The Australian Museum, crocodiles also consume locusts.
When they want to feed, they clamp down on prey with their massive jaws, crush it and then swallow the prey whole. They’re not able to break off small pieces of food like other animals.
What Is the Difference Between a Caiman, an Alligator, and a Crocodile?
Caimans, Alligators, and crocodiles, all belong to the same family. All three of them are reptiles and people tend to get confused between them. They have the same appearance but experienced biologists give us a few clues by which we can tell them apart.
Caimans live only in specific freshwater areas of South and Central America. Whereas Alligators live in the southeastern United States, there are other alligator species living solely in China. That’s why caimans and alligators grow in temperature climates.
On the other hand, crocodiles can live in both, freshwater and saltwater habitats throughout the tropical Americas, Africa, and Asia. In fact, most crocodile species migrate farther out to sea when there’s a change in weather.
Caimans are one of the smallest reptilian predators, averaging 6.5 feet in length and 88 pounds in weight. After caimans, American alligators are the smallest. They are roughly 13 feet long and weigh 794 pounds.
Whereas, crocodiles are the largest among these species. They’re up to 16 feet in length and as heavy as 1,151 pounds.
Skull and Snout Shape
Caimans and alligators, both have a wide and U-shaped snout. Although, unlike alligators, caimans do not have a septum; that is, the bony partition that separates the nostrils. While crocodiles have a narrower, V-shaped snout.
Caimans usually have small animals such as fish, small birds, and small mammals as their foods. Whereas, whereas alligators feed on large fish, turtles, and large mammals.
In contrast, crocodiles generally consume whatever they can see. They’re known to attack animals as large as sharks, buffaloes, and great apes. They’re also a few reports that claims crocodile can even eat humans.
Here’s a table to summarize the differences between these species.
South and Central America
the southeastern U.S.
Yangtze River, China
|Freshwater and saltwater; |
tropical and subtropical Central and South America,
|Length||Yacare caiman Length |
|American alligator |
Length 13 feet
|Saltwater crocodile |
Length 9.5 to 16 feet
|Weight||Weight: 88 pounds||Weight 794 pounds||Weight: 1,151 pounds|
|Snout shape||Wide, |
|Prey Type||Consumes small animals, |
|Eats large fish, |
|Attacks whatever comes their way, |
even gorillas and humans
- There are three types of different caimans.
- The length of the black caiman is 4.5m.
- Caimans feed on fish, birds, and small animals.
- There are two types of alligators.
- The American alligator is the largest alligator.
- The Chinese alligator is the smallest alligator with a maximum length of 2.1m.
- Alligators feed on large fish, turtles, and large mammals.
- Crocodile is found in saltwater, freshwater, and subtropical areas.
- Crocodiles obtain a length of 9.5 to 16 feet.
- Crocodile attacks sharks, large mammals, and even humans.